Types of light bulb

Types of light bulb

Thanks to technology and innovative minds there are multiple varieties of items to choose from in almost every device. Today you cannot go to a selling point and ask car, the next question will always be which type of car. In late 19th and early 20th century, there was one type of a bulb, the …

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Colored lights Types and Applications

Colored lights

Introduction Electrical lighting was a phenomenal and outstanding invention in the late 19th century that has been a blessing to the world to date. There were various attempts of what could give the best light for a prolonged period by various scientists. Tungsten was the best settled for all the tested materials. The colour produced …

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Phototransistor Operation, Properties & Applications


Introduction A phototransistor is a semiconductor device that is sensitive to light to operate. It functions as an electronic switch and current amplification device; the presence of light is used to activate it. Essentially it converts light to electrical energy. Two words from the word phototransistor, that are the photo (light) and transistor (electronic switch …

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Ring Oscillator Operation & Application

Ring oscillator application

A ring oscillator is a device that generates periodic electrical signals that have a square waveform when it is powered. It’s made from semiconductor technology of digital logic gates. It’s made off the number of NOT gates that are connector in a chain manner and the last one connected to the first to make a …

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Neon Light Transformer

Neon light transformer

You have walked in the streets of a city, commercial buildings, and busy highways and lately even in small towns and seen advertisement signs that are lit. When darkness encroaches on the earth and man needs light, electric lighting has been the reliable solution since the late 1880s. Thanks to electric lighting businesses can go …

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Zener Diode Applications & Ratings

Zener Diode

The diode is one of the most common components in every electronic circuitry. You already know that a diode is a semiconductor device made of positively and negatively doped parted being fitted together. The region where the p and n-type meet are referred to as a junction. Zener diode is a special type in that …

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What is Rheostat? Construction, Types and Application


A rheostat is an electrical component with variable resistance. Basically, it is a variable or adjustable resistor.  As the name suggests a resistor resists or inhibits the flow of electric current through a circuit. The amount of current through a circuit is determined by the voltage applied and the total resistance, current is proportional to …

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What is Tungsten Light Bulb?

tungsten light bulb color

The legacy filament bulb is commonly known as the tungsten bulb. The element has for over a century proven to be a good choice made by our forefathers. There is none like tungsten in performance. To date, the majority of electrical lighting uses a tungsten bulb. Though the technology is first changing, I don’t foresee …

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Transmission Line Properties and Performance

Transmission line signals

This is a pair of electrical conductors that carry electrical signals from one place to another. There are two major types of electrical signals namely; small signals and large signals. Large electrical signals carry electrical power from the generation station to the distribution center. On the other hand, small signals are used for communication purposes …

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Laser Diode Construction, Operation, and Properties

laser diode

Introduction A laser diode is a semiconductor device that generates coherent light of high intensity when the electric current is applied to it. The word LASER is actually an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. It converts electrical energy into a light beam. It’s like a light-emitting diode (LED) with a PN …

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